发布者: 发布时间:2023-04-12
本文摘要:He only had himself to blame, Mike Weston thought ruefully as he strapped a Fitbit to his wrist one cold February morning. His company was about to start tracking him 24 hours a day, gathering data on everything from his sleep quality and heart rate to his location and web browsing habits.在今年2月的一个严寒的早上,迈克韦斯顿(Mike Weston)把一个Fitbit手环套在手腕上,失望地想这不能怪自己。

He only had himself to blame, Mike Weston thought ruefully as he strapped a Fitbit to his wrist one cold February morning. His company was about to start tracking him 24 hours a day, gathering data on everything from his sleep quality and heart rate to his location and web browsing habits.在今年2月的一个严寒的早上,迈克韦斯顿(Mike Weston)把一个Fitbit手环套在手腕上,失望地想这不能怪自己。他将受到自己公司全天候的跟踪,并被收集从睡眠中质量和心率到所处方位和网际网路习惯等各种数据。“I was really quite grumpy about it, I didn’t want to put myself on display like that,” he says. But as chief executive of Profusion, a data science consultancy, he had been urging his team of number crunchers to plan more ambitious internal projects — and this was the one they had come up with.韦斯顿说:“我知道深感十分玩笑,我想这么展出自己。

”但作为数据科学咨询公司Profusion的首席执行官,他仍然在呼吁自己的数据分析团队策划一些极具雄心的内部项目,于是他们就明确提出了这个项目。For 10 days, Profusion’s data scientists used Fitbits and other apps to track 171 personal metrics for 31 staff who volunteered (including the somewhat reluctant Mr Weston). Combing through the data, the analysts found they could group the staff into clusters, based on shared patterns of behaviour. They labelled one group “Busy and Coping”; another “Irritated and Unsettled”.在十天时间里,Profusion的数据科学家们用于Fitbit和其他应用于来跟踪31名员工志愿者(还包括有些不情愿的韦斯顿)的171项个人指标。分析师们通过整理这些数据找到,可以按照一些联合的不道德模式对这些员工分组。

他们把一组员工称作“无暇应付型”,将另一组称作“烦躁不安型”。Technology has made it possible for employers to monitor employees more closely than ever, from GPS trackers for delivery drivers to software that tracks which websites office workers visit. Companies such as Profusion think wearable gadgets could open a new frontier in workplace analytics, albeit one that would further blur the lines between our work and private lives.从追踪车主司机的GPS定位仪到跟踪办公室员工网页网站习惯的软件,技术让雇员需要比以往更加森严地监控员工。

Profusion等公司指出,可穿着设备有可能为办公场所分析修筑了新的前沿阵地,虽然它将不会更进一步模糊不清工作和私人生活之间的界限。“I think there’s an inevitability that it will gain ground, and there’s a backlash risk that will follow if the data get abused,” says Mr Weston.韦斯顿回应:“我指出,可穿着设备普及出去是势所必然的,而如果数据被欺诈,就有引发反感声浪的风险。”For employers, the simplest way to use wearable gadgets (and so far the most common) is to give them to staff and try to nudge them into healthier lifestyles — a financially worthwhile goal if the company is on the hook for their health insurance. BP, for example, gives Fitbits to workers in North America and offers them rewards if they meet activity targets. Indeed, one of Fitbit’s five strategic goals is to “further penetrate the corporate wellness market”, according to its IPO prospectus. Wearables could also be straightforward tools.对雇员来说,用于可穿着设备最简单(也是目前为止最少见)的方法是,把它们发给员工,设法让他们自由选择更加身体健康的生活方式——如果公司负责管理员工医疗保险的话,这个目标从财务上来说是有价值的。


可穿着设备也有可能是必要的工具。But the bigger prize is to use the data from such devices to make the workforce safer or more productive. Some warehouse workers already wear wristbands or headsets that measure their productivity and location in real-time.但更大的起到是利用此类设备取得的数据来让工作场所显得更加安全性或者提升生产效率。一些货仓工人早已戴着上腕带或耳机来取决于他们的工作效率和展开动态定位。

Kronos, the “workforce management” company whose customers include Apple, Starbucks and Ikea, makes annual revenues of more than $1bn by selling scheduling and real-time data tools that minimise salary bills and maximise productivity. Brenda Morris, who runs Kronos’s UK business, says the company sees applications for wearables in blue and white collar work.Kronos是一家“工作场所管理”公司,它的客户还包括苹果(Apple)、星巴克(Starbucks)和宜家(Ikea),销售可以最小化薪资成本和最大化生产效率的下班和动态数据工具,年收入多达10亿美元。Kronos英国业务主管布伦达莫里斯(Brenda Morris)回应,该公司看见在蓝领和白领职员身上应用于可穿着设备很有效地。“If you’re monitoring where people are, what their stress levels are, what their fatigue levels are...[that’s] really important when operating machinery...Or [in an office] you can see that person’s getting stressed because they’ve been working on that legal contract for too many hours and they don’t have enough support.”“如果你在监控人们所处方位、他们的压力水平,以及他们的疲惫程度……在操作者机器时,(这)知道十分最重要……或者(在办公室),你可以看见某个人因长时间研究法律合同,而且没取得充足反对而显得情绪致使”。Chris Brauer, a senior lecturer at Goldsmiths, University of London, who runs experiments with workplace wearables, predicts a future in which managers have dashboards showing real-time employee biometrics such as sleep quality that are leading indicators for performance. “It becomes a predictive tool and possibly also a prescriptive one.”伦敦大学金史密斯学院(Goldsmiths, University of London)高级讲师克里斯布劳尔(Chris Brauer)负责管理有关工作场所可穿着设备的试验,他预计未来经理们将不会用仪表盘表明员工睡眠中质量等动态生物指标,这些是伴随业绩展现出的先行指标。


“它不会沦为一种预测性工具,有可能也不会沦为一种规定性的工具”。But that vision is a long way off — and there are a number of practical, legal and ethical hurdles in the way.但这一设想距离构建还有很长的路要回头,面对着许多实践中、法律和道德方面的障碍。First, no one seems to have worked out yet how to analyse or draw useful conclusions from wearables data. Profusion plans to do more trials in larger companies, overlaying the personal metrics with workplace performance data. But so far, the experience of Rob Symes, co-founder of a London start-up called The Outside View, is typical. He tracked all his employees with wearables last year, only to realise: “Right, I’ve got all this data, what the hell does it mean?”首先,或许还没有人研究出有,如何对可穿着设备产生的数据展开分析,或者如何借此得出结论简单的结论。

Profusion计划在较大型公司积极开展更加多试验,将个人指标和整体工作场所业绩展现出数据变换一起。但到目前为止,一般来说不会看见的情况是伦敦初创公司The Outside View的牵头创始人罗布赛姆斯(Rob Symes)的经历。

去年他利用可穿着设备跟踪了所有员工,最后意识到:“好吧,我掌控了所有数据,但这些数据究竟意味著什么?”Meanwhile, wearable devices crossing over corporate “digital perimeters” every day are an obvious target for hackers, says Dave Palmer, who spent 13 years at GCHQ and MI5 before joining cyber security company Darktrace as head of technology. “You might think that’s a bit alarmist — what are the chances of my watch or heartrate monitor getting hacked — but this idea of the ‘internet of things’ is racing farther ahead in terms of functionality than in terms of security.”另一方面,每天穿过企业“数据边界”的可穿着设备显著不会沦为黑客的目标,在英国政府通信总部(GCHQ)和军情五处(MI5)工作13年后重新加入网络安全公司Darktrace兼任技术主管的戴夫帕尔马(Dave Palmer)回应。“你可能会指出这有点危言耸听——我的手表或者心率监测器被黑客侵略的几率能有多大呢——但‘物联网’这个概念在功能性方面早已走在了安全性的前面。”The gadgets are also easy to game. Adam Miller’s employer gives him cash rewards if his Fitbit shows he has taken a certain number of steps a day. But it registers “steps” when jolted, so if he has not met his daily target, “I might watch TV and wave my arm around...or my kids will grab it and start shaking it to see what the numbers get to.”这些小玩意也很更容易糊弄。


对于亚当米勒(Adam Miller)来说,如果Fitbit表明他一天跑到了一定的步数,他的雇员就不会给与他现金奖励。但Fitbit是在摇晃的情况下记录“步数”的。因此如果米勒没已完成每日的目标,“我有可能一旁看电视一旁手持我的手臂……或者我的孩子们不会捉着它摇晃,看上面的数字不会到多少。

”For Dane Atkinson, chief executive of tech company Sumall, this highlights a serious problem with workplace metrics. “It has a law of physics — as soon as people know it’s being observed it changes the outcome.” His solution as a young CEO was to come up with a secret metric his employees did not know about: he tracked the volume and length of their work emails, which he found a surprisingly good indicator of who was in “professional distress”.科技公司Sumall的首席执行官戴恩阿特金森(Dane Atkinson)指出,这突显了工作场所指标不存在的一个相当严重问题。“这其中不存在物理法则——一旦人们告诉一个指标在被观测,结果就不会转变。

”作为一名年长的首席执行官,阿特金森的解决方案是明确提出一个他的员工不告诉的秘密指标:跟踪员工工作邮件的数量和长度,他找到在表明谁正处于“职业艰难期”方面,这种指标效果好得难以置信。“I was struggling with empathy...the data really helped me catch up,” he says. “In watching those patterns I could start a conversation and say, hey, what’s going on, and there was almost always a huge unload.”“我之前无法对员工感同身受……数据的确协助我填补了这一点,”他说道,“看见那些情况后,我就可以与员工聊天,并且对员工说道,嗨,怎么了,完全总是不会听见大量诉说的话语。”He thinks it is reasonable for an employer to monitor work emails, “but there’s a moral line that’s not been navigated by public conversation yet”.他指出雇员监控工作邮件是合理的,“但这其中有一条道德的界线,公共舆论还没寻找这条线的方位。

”The legal line has not been navigated yet, either. Lawyers say companies would have to gain the explicit informed consent of employees before gathering personal data from wearables — and further consent to correlate it with other data, such as performance metrics.法律的界线也还没确认。律师们回应,企业通过可穿着设备搜集个人数据前,应当在员工知情的情况下获得员工的具体表示同意——在将这些数据与工作展现出指标等其他数据展开关联前,还要更进一步获得员工的表示同意。Even then, there is a risk employees would feel implicit pressure to agree, says Daniel Cooper, head of the data privacy team at the law firm Covington.科文顿柏灵律师事务所(Covington and Burling)数据隐私小组主管丹尼尔库珀(Daniel Cooper)回应,即使如此,还不存在员工因深感隐性压力而只得表示同意的可能性。

“Historically European regulators in the data protection area have been very sceptical you can ever get a valid employee consent — they feel that for existing employees, [the relationship] is almost inherently coercive.”“欧洲在数据保护领域的监管机构历年来回应抱着十分猜测的态度,指出你显然得到贯彻的员工表示同意——他们实在对于现有员工来说,(雇用关系)完全有一种固有的强制性。”How many workers would say yes, uncoerced, and under what conditions? PwC asked 2,000 people recently: 40 per cent said they would wear a workplace wearable, rising to just over half if they knew it would be used to improve their wellbeing at work.在不强迫的情况下,有多少员工不会表示同意,又必须什么条件呢?普华永道(PwC)最近告知了2000人:有40%的人回应他们不会配戴工作场所可穿着设备。如果他们告诉这将用作提高他们的工作状况,这个比例不会提升到略高于一半。

Employers and employees might share the same goals (less stress in the workplace, say) but then again, they might not. Many of those who said “no way” did not trust their employer not to use the data against them. A promise to anonymise the data and only analyse them in aggregated form would help win people over, PwC found.雇员和员工也许有一些完全相同的目标(比如减少工作压力),但他们也有可能意见不合。许多问“敢”的人不坚信雇员会用这些数据来针对他们。

普华永道找到,电子邮件搜集数据,只从整体上分析数据的允诺有助谋求人们的反对。For Mike Weston of Profusion, the reaction of his staff to their wearables experiment was as interesting as the data it produced. Some found it enlightening and useful, while others found it “quite disturbing.” One ended up “the most stressed I’ve ever seen her”.对于Profusion公司的迈克韦斯顿来说,员工对可穿着设备试验的反应和试验产生的数据一样有意思。一些人实在可穿着设备很简单,富裕启发性,另一些人则指出这些设备“非常令人烦恼”。

其中有一个人到最后变为一副“我了解她以来最情绪的样子”。As for him? “I still don’t know if I love it, but I haven’t taken it off.”他本人怎么看?“我还不告诉自己否讨厌可穿着设备,不过我没有把它脱下来。